Soft power Bollywood, sterker dan we denken

Door Jaswina

(Bron afbeelding: Benjamin Netanyahu)

India heeft haar filmindustrie bewust ingezet als middel om eenheidsvorming te bevorderen, na de onafhankelijkheid toen het land in haar verscheurde en verarmde toestand vanuit het niets ineens een natie moest vormen. Niet voor niets wordt Bollywood door verschillende mediawetenschappers en Bollywoodkenners aangeduid als India’s “soft power”. Een concept gelanceerd door Joseph Nye (1990), een amerikaanse policoloog. Hij gaat ervan uit dat elk land zijn eigen “soft power” heeft. Soft power is door Nye gedefenieerd als “the ability to shape the preferences of others through appeal and attraction”. De Indiase overheid was toen (en is nog steeds) de belangrijkste investeerder voor de filmproductie. Films waarin de onafhankelijkheidstrijd en de verzetsstrijders centraal stonden, zoals Shaheed (1965), Kranti (1981), en The legend of Bhagat Singh (2002) zijn voorbeelden waarin het nationalisme van afdruipt. Opvallend in deze films is dat zowel hindoes als moslims de strijd tegen het Engelse kolonialisme samen voeren. Zelfs in films waarin de strijd met Pakistan op de achtergrond meespeelt zoals Veer Zara (2004) en Gadar: Ek prem katha (2001) hebben naast de Pakistaanse moslims, van wie vaak een karikatuur wordt gemaakt, ook nationalistische Indiase moslims een rol die loyaal zijn aan India. Die loyale Indiase moslim zien we ook terug in de films waarin het terrorisme centraal staan zoals Dhokha (2007) en New York (2009).

De afgelopen vier jaar heeft het Indiase nationalisme zich verengd tot een hindoenationalisme. We zien dat terug in films als Bajiroa Mastani (2015) waarin de strijdkreet ‘Har Har Mahadew’ frequent werd gescandeerd, maar extra op momenten dat er werd opgeroepen om de strijd met de moslims aan te gaan. Of in films als Baahubali 1 (2015) en Baahubali 2 (2017) waarin de hindoetradities, en met name de tradities zoals de eerbaarheid van de Hindoe vrouw, worden opgehemeld. En momenteel draait de film Padmaavat (2018). De ophef die de film vooraf ging, speelde zich af omdat de film wellicht een liefdesscene tussen de Rajput koningin Padmavati en de door haar geobsedeerde Islamitische koning Alauddin bevatte. En omdat er een scene in de film zou zijn waarin een stukje van de middenrif van de actrice in haar rol als Padmavati zichtbaar zou zijn. De film werd bij voorbaat geboycot. Er vonden geregeld massademonstraties van de rajputs (zowel mannen als vrouwen) en extreem rechtse hindoe’s plaats, er werd een prijs op de hoofd van de actrice en de filmregisseur uitgeloofd en er vond mishandeling en moord plaats. Achteraf gezien was al deze ophef nergens voor nodig. Want juist deze film verheft de rajput cultuur boven alle culturen en kastes en schildert de moslimcultuur “raavan-achtig” (demonisch) af in de rol van koning Allaudin, meer dan alle voorgaande films ooit hebben gedaan, en er was geen stukje bloot te zien bij koninging Padmavati. Alle hierboven genoemde voorbeelden van films zijn vrij simpele verhalen, gebaseerd op mythologieën, met een grote dosis aan pracht en praal, decor en kleding, zang en dans en het belangrijkste ingrediënt ‘het hindoe nationalisme’ die aangewakkerd wordt door de ophemeling van vergane en orthodoxe tradities.

Het hindoenationalisme zien we ook in de politieke betrokkenheid van acteurs. Neem bijvoorbeeld Kirron Kher, die o.a. een prominente rol heeft in de film Padmaavat, maar ook een actief Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) partijlid is, momenteel de heersende politieke partij in India. Sinds Narendre Modi’s BJP die het hindoenationalisme als uitgangspunt heeft (wat gebaseerd is op het controversiële hindutva, een stroming uit de jaren 20 van de vorige eeuw) aan de macht is, waait er een uiterst rechtse wind in het land. Moslims en andere minderheden worden in de Indiase samenleving steeds meer gemarginaliseerd. Huwelijken tussen Hindoes en Moslim wordt ten zeerste afgekeurd. Andersdenkenden (waarvan veel hoogopgeleide hindoes) wordt de mond gesnoerd binnen wetenschap en media. Dit zijn maar enkele voorbeelden van het rechtse klimaat. Het is dit rechtse geluid die we in de films terug zien. Het maakt de verwevenheid tussen het politieke klimaat en de Bollywood sferen pijnlijk duidelijk.

Het wordt ook eens en te meer duidelijk dat het ‘acteur zijn’ in Bollywood een soort van “ambassadeurschap” voor de politiek in zich heeft. Elke partij probeert wel acteurs aan zich te binden omdat zij van grote invloed zijn op het denken van het grote publiek. De populariteit van de bollywoodacteurs in India is niet te vergelijken met de filmsterrenstatus die acteurs in het westen krijgen. Een bollywoodacteur is daar meer dan een idool, hij is in de ogen van het publiek een belichaming van normen, waarden, kracht, en wijsheid. Daarmee gaat een kracht uit van acteurs die verder gaat dan hun bijdrage in een film en waarmee het publiek ook politiek beïnvloed wordt.

De softpower van de Bollywoodfilmindustrie is ook in het westen niet onopgemerkt gebleven. Met name in de wereld van film en muziek zien we dat er westerse acteurs en muzikanten graag iets met Bollywood willen doen. Neem bijvoorbeeld Sylvester Stallone in Kambakkth Ishq (2009) of Ben Kingsley in Teen Patti (2010). Of de rapper Akon met zijn rapnummer voor de film Ra-One (2011). Tot op de dag van vandaag is Akons rapnummer Chammak Challo de grootste rapnummer ooit, qua hit in het aantal landen. Dat lijkt eerder te komen door de groeiende afzetmarkt van de Bollywoodfilms (die vele malen groter is dan Hollywood) dan door de kwaliteit van het nummer.

Na de filmmakers, acteurs en muzikanten uit westen, raken ook steeds meer politici geïnteresseerd in de allergrootste filmindustrie ter wereld. In dit verband is het bezoek van de Israelische premier Netanyahu van veelzeggend. Gedurende zijn bezoek aan India werden niet alleen zaken besproken, nee er werd een gigantisch Bollywood event gehouden ‘Shalom Bollywood’, met prominente Bollywoodacteurs en filmmakers zoals Amitabh Bachchan, Aishwarya Rai, Abhishek Bachchan, Vivek Oberoi,  Madhur Bhandarkaren en Karan Johar. Netanyahu houdt van Bollywood of zoals hij het zelf zei: “We believe in Bollywood. World loves Bollywood. Israel loves Bollywood. We want Bollywood in Israel. We are putting our money where our mouth is”. En wat doe je dan als Israelische premier en Indiase filmindustrie? Je bezegelt de deal op zijn modernst: je maakt een selfie en post dat op Twitter. De opvallende afwezigen op de avond waren de drie Khans: Shah Rukh Khan, Aamir Khan, en Salman Khan. Wiens afwezigheid veelzeggend was. Ze hebben verder geen reden gegeven voor hun afwezigheid, maar ze hebben hun statement gemaakt. Net zoals de aanwezigheid van de andere prominente acteurs ook veelzeggend is. Er is die avond politieke kleur bekend. De tweesplitsing die we in de samenleving eerder merkte (voor en tegenstanders van de BJP), dat heeft zich nu ook afgetekend in Bollywood.

Duidelijk is dat de zeer rechtse hindutva politiek in India en het net zo zeer rechtste Likoed bewind van Netanyahu elkaar hebben weten te vinden. Hiermee heeft de verbindende softpower van Bollywood een nieuwe dimensie gekregen. Verbond het eerst het volk in het land, en daarna de gemeenschappen in de Indiase diaspora, nu verbindt het rechtse natiestaten India en Israel. Hoe onthullend nietwaar?

Nye, Joseph. (1990). Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York: Basic Books.

http://indianexpress.com/article/india/minorities-being-targeted-former-bureaucrats-in-open-letter-5042970/

http://www.news18.com/news/business/india-slips-to-42nd-place-on-eiu-democracy-index-us-at-21st-1647409.html

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bareilly/bareilly-dm-questions-trend-of-entering-muslim-localities-raising-anti-pak-slogans/articleshow/62700714.cms?utm_source=facebook.com&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=TOIMobile&from=mdr

https://thewire.in/221014/hindutva-vrata-facebook/

https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/teenager-seen-beating-muslim-man-forcing-him-to-say-jai-shriram-in-a-video-1162717-2018-02-07

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